Cancer can be treated by surgerychemotherapyradiation therapyhormonal therapytargeted therapy including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy and synthetic lethality. The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient performance status. A number of experimental cancer treatments are also under development.
Biomarkers play a key role in risk assessment, assessing treatment response, and detecting recurrence and the investigation of multiple biomarkers may also prove useful in accurate prediction and prognosis of cancers. Immunohistochemistry IHC has been a major diagnostic tool to identify therapeutic biomarkers and to subclassify breast cancer patients. However, there is no suitable IHC platform for multiplex assay toward personalized cancer therapy.
Low level laser therapy LLLTalso known as "cold" laser therapy, refers to a wide variety of procedures involving several laser types and treatment methods. LLLT uses red beam or near infrared nonthermal lasers with a wavelength between and nanometers and from five to milliwatts. In contrast, lasers used for surgery typically use watts.
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Laser ablation LA is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments.
Laser light is different from regular light. The light from the sun or from a light bulb has many different wavelengths and spreads out in all directions. Laser light, on the other hand, has a single wavelength and can be focused in a very narrow beam.
Breast cancer is the main cause of mortality among women. The disease presents high recurrence mainly due to incomplete efficacy of primary treatment in killing all cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy PDTan approach that causes tissue destruction by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer Ps and oxygen, appears as a promising alternative therapy that could be used adjunct to chemotherapy and surgery for curing cancer.
CONTENT: Different analytical systems for CTC isolation and detection have been developed as immunocytochemical and molecular assays, most including separation steps by size or biological characteristics, such as expression of epithelial- or cancer-specific markers. Recent technical advancements in CTC detection and characterization include methods based on multiplex reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and approaches based on imaging and microfilter and microchip devices. New areas of research are directed toward developing novel assays for CTC molecular characterization.