Bursitis is defined as the irritation or inflammation of a bursa fluid filled sacs attached to joints. It most commonly occurs in adults over 40 years of age and results in discomfort or loss of motion in the affected joint. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac located around joints in the body that reduce friction and ease movement as tendons or muscles pass over bones or skin.
The hand is composed of many different bones, muscles, and ligaments that allow for a large amount of movement and dexterity. There are 3 major types of bones in the hand itself, including:. The 14 bones that are found in the fingers of each hand and also in the toes of each foot.
Bursitis and tendinitis are conditions that are also known as soft tissue rheumatic syndromes. A syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and indicate a particular problem. This type of syndrome produces pain, swelling, or inflammation in the tissues and structures around a joint, such as the tendons, ligaments, bursae, and muscles. Because the structures affected by soft tissue rheumatic syndromes are near joints, pain in these areas may be mistaken for arthritis.
Tendons are cord-like structures located where a muscle narrows down to attach to a bone. The tendon is more fibrous and dense than the elastic, fleshy muscle. A tendon transmits the pull of the muscle to the bone to cause movement.
Swelling and inflammation near a joint may be a sign of bursitis, a condition that involves buildup of liquid and inflammation in a bursa sac that cushions a joint. Excessive friction, a trauma, or other condition can irritate the synovium and cause it to become inflamed. The inflamed synovium will thicken and produce excess synovial fluid, and can cause symptoms such as localized swelling, skin redness and warmth, tenderness and pain.
Small fluid filled sacs around bones, tendons, and muscles near joints can become irritated and swell with bursitis. The shoulders, elbows, and knee are often affected. Rest and protection of the joints as well as diminishing repetitive movement are common ways to prevent this disorder.
Wrist bursitis is inflammation of a bursa, which is a small sack of fluid that helps lubricate the movement of tendons over bone. There are two bursas in the wrist, and repetitive trauma or friction can cause them to become inflamed. Treatment involves rest and reducing inflammation. Symptoms include pain in the wrist, especially when the wrist is bent back extended or when performing weight-bearing activities or sports.